FAZAAIL WA MASAAIL-I-ZABEEHA
Zabeeha is in commemoration of the unexampled submission and faithfulness of Hazrat Ibn-Rahim (alaihis salaam), who got ready, in deference to the Divine Command, to sacrifice his then only son. Besides, there is an unlimited and immeasurable reward from Allaah for slaughtering an animal in His name.
Hazrat 'Aisha (Razi allahu anha) has reported that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has said:
"On the 10th of Zilhijjah, there is no better (virtuous) act with Allaah than shedding the blood (of slaughter animals). The sacrificial animal will be present before Allaah on the Day of Judgment complete with its horns and hoofs, and verily the sacrifice earns (instant) approbation of Allaah even before the (first drop of blood falls on the ground. Hence you should offer it in good spirit (with pleasure and willingly)." (Trimidhi & Mishkaat)
In the face of these clear and unambiguous words of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), there can be no basis for the interpretation of "the progressives" that instead of offering Zabeeha, an amount equivalent to the market price of the animal be given away to the poor.
It is reported by Abdullah bin Umer (Razi allahu anhu) that throughout his ten years in Madina, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) regularly offered Zabeeha.
Masaail-i-Zabeeha (Precepts of Sacrifice)
According to a Hadith (saying of the Holy Prophet - Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) reported by the companions:
Abu Raafe' (Raziallahu anhu) has reported that with his resolve to offer Zabeeha, the Holy Prophet used to purchase a pair of robust rams. (Masnad Ahmad)
Abu Amama (Razi allahu anhu) has said:
"In Medina we used to feed the slaughter animals so well as would make them put on weight. And this was the common practice with all the Muslims." (Bukhari)
All the halaal domesticated or reared quadrupeds can be offered as Zabeeha.
Zabeeha of defective animals (blind, one eyed, lame, sick, lean and thin) is not permissible. Similarly an animal with half (or more than one third) of its ear(s) or tail cut off, or half of its horn(s) knocked out should not be offered in Zabeeha (Trimidhi).
Time of Sacrifice:
According to the three Imams, namely, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Ahmad (Rahima-humullahu) there are three days for offering Sacrifice, that is after the 'Id-al-Azha (the feast of immolation) prayer to the 12th of Zilhijjah. Sacrifice in the night during this period is permitted in the view of Imam Shafa'I but it is not desirable to do so. According to the traditionalists, Sacrifice can be offered on the 13th as well.
Method of Sacrifice:
Invocation (its transliteration with translation is given below) to be recited immediately before offering the .Zabeeha:
Inni wajjahto wajhiya lillazi fataras - samawaati wal-arz 'alaa millati Ibrahima hanifanw wa ma ana minal mushrikeen. Inna salaati wa nusuki wa mahyaya wa mamaati lillahi rabbil 'alameen. La shareeka lahu wa bizaalika omirto wa ana minal muslimeen minka wa lika. (Abu Daud)
"I have turned my face to One Who is the Creator of the heavens and earth, I am, with full faith, one of the religious community of Ibrahim and I am not at all one of the idolators. My prayers (salaat), my offering of Zabeeha, my life and my demise are all for the Lord of all the worlds. There is not partner of His and that's I have been ordained (to profess). And I am one of the Muslimeen, (those who have surrendered themselves completely to the will of God). (O Allaah, the slaughter animal is a gift) from Thee and (I offer it in Sacrifice) to Thee."
A camel should be allowed to remain standing after its left fore leg has been stringed and a sharp spear should then be thrust in its breast reciting Bismillahi Allahu Akbar (In the name of Allaah; Allaah is most Great). Other slaughter animals should be laid on their left side facing Qibla (Baitullah), and the throat cut open with a sharp knife, reciting Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, to drain out all the blood of the animal.
Invocation to be recited after the Zabeeha:
Allahumma taqab-balhu minni kama taqabalta min habeebika
Muhammadin wa khaleelika Ibrahim (alaihmus salaam).
'O Allaah accept it from me as Thou did accept from Thy beloved
Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and Thy friend Ibrahim (alaihis salaam).
It is however, enough to make the resolve in one's mind and not to pronounce the intent and or the invocation(s) orally. But the words Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, have to be recited.
In the view of the Hanafites one lamb/sheep/goat can be offered in sacrifice on behalf of one person only. Again with the Hanafites there can be seven partners (co-sharers) in the Sacrifices of other slaughter animals like a camel or a cow. There would be no harm if a lesser number of partners were to participate. The shares of all the participants should be divided equally by weight. It is essential for all the co-sharers to make a resolve to participate in Zabeeha (Qurbaani) or to perform 'Aqiqa'. They should have no other purpose in view, as for instance to simply obtain and eat meat.
One who intends to offer a sacrifice should refrain from having a haircut, shave, etc., from the 1st of Zilhijjah (upto the time he has performed Zabeeha) (Muslim). Even if those who cannot afford to offer a sacrifice; were to abide by the above rule and restrain themselves similarly, they will also be entitled to a great reward. (Abu Daud).
It is not permissible to give the butcher (or other attendant) portion of the Zabeeha meat or the skin of the slaughtered animal in lieu of his wages. It is permissible to give away the skin either in charity, or to make use of it otherwise.
A slaughter animal can be offered for each member of the family and for one's deceased parents, family members and other relatives in the hope of benediction and blessings for the departed souls. Zabeeha can be offered for the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), for his escorts and for one's religious preceptor.
One for whom it is wajib (obligatory) to pay Sadaqatul Fitr, Zabeeha is also wajib for him, even if he gets into possession of money before sunset of the 12th. Zabeeha (Qurbani) is not wajib for one who is on a journey, but it will become wajib for him if he reaches his place of normal residence before sunset on the 12th. If a traveller intends to stay at a stretch for fifteen days at a place, Zabeeha will be wajib for him. Offer of Zabeeha before 'Id-al-Azha prayer is not proper.
It is preferable to slaughter the Zabeeha with one's own hand. If he is not well versed to do so he should remain present at the time of sacrifice by the side of the animal. In case of a lady, it is not necessary to be present at the time of Sacrifice by the side of the animal if there can be no purdah (seclusion) arrangement.
Zabeeha is wajib only on behalf of one's own self and not on behalf of his grown up children. If Zabeeha is offered out of one's own money or from the assets of others, it will be Nafl Zabeeha. One should not offer it for others even if they have the means for it, even from out of their own money, if not expressly so authorised.
The resolve to have or not to have a co-sharer(s) should be made at the time of purchasing a slaughter animal, the Zabeeha of which admits (co-sharer(s) up to seven. Having made the resolve not to have co-sharer(s), it is not permissible for one for whom Zabeeha is not wajib (but be out of his own free will decides to offer one), to change his mind. The person for whom Zabeeha is wajib may change his mind. The person for whom Zabeeha is wajib may change his option in favour of having co-sharer(s) but he should first ascertain whether the would-be co-sharer(s) is (are) a person(s) of means or not. If not, it would not be proper to have him them as a co-sharer(s). If the slaughter animal is by any chance lost temporarily and a second one is purchased in the meantime by way of its replacement, it would suffice in case of a person of means to offer in sacrifice one of the two. But if the owner concerned happens to be one of those for whom Zabeeha is not wajib, it will be necessary for him to offer in sacrifice both the animals. One for whom Zabeeha is wajib but somehow is unable to offer it during the 3 prescribed days, he should give away in charity an amount equal to the price of a slaughter animal or if he had purchased a slaughter animal should give away the animal as it is, in charity. One who resolves to offer Zabeeha out of his own free will to invoke blessings for the souls of the departed ones can help himself with the Zabeeha meat; he can distribute and gift it as well. One who offers Zabeeha in compliance with the express will of a dead person, out of the dead person's assets should give away the whole of Zabeeha meat in charity. It is wajib for him to do so. If someone offers Zabeeha for an absentee without his express request, Zabeeha will not be in order. Similarly if in a Zabeeha, a share is reserved for or included on behalf of an absentee without his express request, the Zabeeha on behalf or other partners will also become invalid.
The slaughter animal should be purchased from the rightful owner and not from its keeper or tenderer or a hired shepherd. There is not harm if the co-sharers in a Zabeeha agree to pool and use the Zabeeha meat for cooking and then distribute the food so cooked to the needy.
Zabeeha meat cannot be given to non-believers, infidels unless it were to be given in lieu of their wages.
The significance (virtues) of the first ten days of Zilhijjah:
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has observed that the first ten days of Zilhijjah is a period for offering invocations, supplications, prayers and other worshipful acts. In these days Fasting for one day stands for Fasting for one year; and the reward for remembrance of Allaah during one of the ten nights is equal to the reward and blessings to be had in Laila-tul-Qadr (the night of Power) one of the odd nights in the last ten days of the holy month of Ramazan (Trimidhi, Ibn-i-Majah).
In the Holy Qur'aan in Chapter Al-Fajr (No. 89), Allaah has sworn by the ten nights. The reference is to the first ten nights of Zilhijjah and the night falling in between Youm-i-Arfah (day of Arfah) and 'Idal-Azha is of special significance. To fast on the ninth day is highly meritorious. It serves as penance or atonement for the sins of the preceding as well as the following year. Hence to keep awake in remembrance of Allaah and for worship during the night preceding the 'Id day is an act of superior value.
(Exaltation and Glorification during the three days following the 10th of Zilhijjah). Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar la ilaha illallahu wallahu Akbar Allahu Akbar wa lillahil hamd. Allaah is most Great, Allaah is most Great. There is no God save Allaah and Allaah is most Great, Allaah is most Great and verily all praises are for Allaah.
Following are the masnoon acts (based on the practice or manner of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) for the day of 'Id-al-Azha.
To get up early in the morning, to take a bath, to use miswaak (the tooth stick) to put on the best, neat and clean dress, to use perfume, to postpone the breakfast till one can partake of the Zabeeha meat, and to pronounce audibly the Takbeer while proceeding for 'Id Salaat.
'Id prayer consists of two rak'aats. They are different from others inasmuch as there are three additional Takbiraat (plural of Takbeer) in each of the two rak'aats - in the first rak'aat after 'Subhaanaka Allahumma' and before Qirat (recitation from Qur'aan Majeed), and in the second rak'aat after Qirat and before going into rukoo'. In the first rak'aat, in pronouncing Takbeerat one should simultaneously raise both of his hands to his ear lobes; let the hands drop to either side after the two Takbeerat and after the third they should be held together as is usual. In the second rak'aat, let the hands drop to the sides after the three Takbeeraat. After the fourth Takbeer bow down for rukoo'.
It is sunnah to listen attentively to the sermon (khutba) after the 'Id prayer, and return by a different route.
(Courtesy: Yaqeen International)